International Fiber Links

 

The following tables are a partial listing of the international long haul fiber installations.

Pre-Fiber North Atlantic Cables

Cables

Comments

TAT-1

• 1956, links Scotland & Newfoundland

• FDM 36 x 4 KHz voice channels

TAT-2

• 1961, links France & Newfoundland

CANTAT-1

• 1961, linked Canada & UK

CANTAT-2

 

ICECAN

• links Canada, Greenland, Iceland, & UK

TAT-3

• 140 x 3 KHz channels

TAT-5

• 1970, links Spain & USA

• 1st system to use transistor repeaters

• 840 x 3 KHz channels

TAT-6

&

TAT-7

• 1983, links USA & UK

• 4200 x 3 KHz channels

• repeater spacing every 9.5 km

• TAT-6 out of service for 7 months - repeater problems

 

Fiber Cables across the Atlantic

http://w3.lab.kdd.co.jp/kdd/cable/map1996/Atlantic.gif

Cable

Comments

TAT-8

•   1989; length: 6700 Km; cost: 361 M$US

•   6 fibers: 2 active single mode pairs and 1 standby pair

•   fiber type: 8 mm diameter, 125mm cladding

•   cable loss of .4 to .5 dB/Km

•   helically wound around a steel king wire

•   21 mm outside diameter

•   bit rate: 280 Mbps per fiber [4000 voice channels]

•   total system capacity: 8000 channels

•   modulation: ADPCM

•   incorporates TASI, provides a 5:1 increase in capacity, potentially 40,000 voice circuits can be handled

•   repeaters: long wave (1.3mm) semiconductor laser : PIN diode detectors: transimpedance amplifier: sensitivity > 34 dBm at 10•9 BER: entire electronics package contains 5 ICs: spacing about 35 Km

•   passive branching is used at the European end

•   one active pair goes to the UK, the other to France

•   the Canadian entry is via a USA gateway

TAT-9

•   1991; length: 9305 Km; cost: 450 M$US

•   wavelength: 1.55 mm

•   total system capacity: 80,000 telephone circuits

•   repeater spacing 75 Km

•   utilizes active branching UBM (undersea branching multi­plexer)

•   although there are only 2 active pairs, there are 3 European landings: UK, France, & Spain

•   landings in both Canada and USA

TAT-10[1]

•   1992; cost: 310 M$US

•   total system capacity: 60,000 telephone circuits

•   links the US, Germany and the Netherlands

TAT-11[2]

•   1993; length: 7100 Km; cost: 259 M$US

•   bit rate: 560 Mbps per fiber

•   total system capacity: 60,000 telephone circuits

•   links the US, the UK, and France

TAT-12/13

 

PTAT† -1

•   1989; length: 9440 Km; cost: 475 M$US

•   wavelength: 1.30 mm

•   bit rate: 420 Mbps per fiber

•   4 fiber pairs

•   total system capacity: 85,000 telephone circuits

•   links UK, Ireland, USA and Bermuda

PTAT-2

•   1992; length: 6500 Km; cost: 500 M$US

•   wavelength: 1.30 mm

•   bit rate: 420 Mbps per fiber

•   4 fiber pairs

•   total system capacity: 85,000 telephone circuits

•   links UK and USA

TAV-1

•   1990; length: 6500 Km; cost: 450 M$US

•   wavelength: 1.30 mm

•   bit rate: 565 Mbps per fiber

•   6 fiber pairs

•   144 television circuits

•   links Europe and USA

CANTAT-3

•   to be completed in October 1994

•   length: 7,700 km

•   first SONET based system

•   30,000 circuits per fiber pair

•   total transmission capacity: 2.5 Gbps

•   lands at Pennant Point, Nova Scotia

Columbus II

•   links: the US and Mexico to Spain, Portugal and Italy

•   length: 13,000 km

•   total transmission capacity: 2.5 Gbps

•   a recent test upgraded this capacity temporarily to 10 Gbps

 

Out of Service Cables

Cable

Service

Comments

SAT-1

1969 - 1993

360 x 4kHz channels

TAT-1

1956 - 1978

Oban, Scotland -- Clarenville, Newoundland, Canada -- Terrenceville, Newfoundland, Canada --Sydney Mines, Nova Scotia, Canada - 7,802km at 144 + 144 KHz for the Transatlantic Portion and240 + 240 KHz for the Terrestrial Portion

TAT-2

1959 - 1982

Penmarc'h, France -- Clarenville, Newoundland, Canada -- Sydney Mines, Nova Scotia, Canada -8,154km at 144 + 144 KHz

CANTAT-1

1961 - 1986

White Bay, Newfoundland, Canada -- Oban, Scotland - 3,839km at 240 + 240 KHz

TAT-3

1963 - 1986

Tuckerton, New Jersey, U.S.A. -- Widemouth Bay, England - 6,515km at 414 + 414 KHz

CANTAT-2

1974 - 1992

Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada -- Widemouth, England - 5,195km at 5,704 + 5,704 KHz

TAT-4

1965 - 1987

Tuckeron, New Jersey, U.S.A. -- St. Hilaire-de-Riez, France - 6,665km at 384 + 384 KHz

TAT-5

1970 - 1993

Green Hill, Rhode Island, U.S.A. -- Conil, Spain - 6,410km at 2,160 + 2,160 KHz

 

Fiber Cables across the Pacific

Cable

Comments

TPC-3 HAW-4

•  1989; length: 13,387 Km; cost: 700 M$US

•  wavelength: 1.30 mm

•  bit rate: 280 Mbps per fiber

•  3 fiber pairs

•  total system capacity: 75,600 telephone circuits

•  a 420 Mbps spur cable will provide service between Alaska and the lower 48 states

•  the US cable end is at Pacific City, Oregon. Back haul fiber links will run to Seattle and San Francisco

•  the Japanese end lands at Miura, near Tokyo, and will be connected to gateways at Yokohama City and Osaka

TPC-4

•  1992; length: 9950 Km; cost: 550 M$US

•  wavelength: 1.55 mm

•  bit rate: 565 Mbps per fiber

•  6 fiber pairs

•  links Japan and USA

TPC-5

 

NPC[3]

•  1990; length: 9400 Km; cost: 400 M$US

•  wavelength: 1.30 mm

•  bit rate: 420 Mbps per fiber

•  6 fiber pairs

•  total system capacity: 60,000 telephone circuits

•  a 420 Mbps spur cable will provide service between Alaska and the lower 48 states

•  the US cable end is at Pacific City, Oregon. Back haul fiber links will run to Seattle and San Francisco

•  the Japanese end lands at Miura, near Tokyo, and will be connected to gateways at Yokohama City and Osaka

•  a 75 mile, repeaterless 1.5 mm fiber will intercon­nect to the HJK and TPC•3 cables

•  complete hot standby transmission systems are used at the shore ends

•  fully equipped cable ships for maintenance and re­pairs will be on permanent standby

PacRimEast

•  1993; length: 13,000 Km; cost: 285 M$US

•  wavelength: 1.55 mm

•  bit rate: 565 Mbps per fiber

•  3 fiber pairs

•  total system capacity: 57,000 telephone circuits

•  connecting Australia, Guam and USA

PacRimWest

•  1994; length: 13,000 Km; cost: 285 M$US

•  wavelength: 1.55 mm

•  bit rate: 565 Mbp per fibers

•  3 fiber pairs

•  total system capacity: 57,000 telephone circuits

•  connecting Australia, Guam and Southeast Asia

APCN2

•  anticipated completion in 2002

•  capacity of 2.5 Tbps

•  cost 1B$US

•  landing points in China, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and Singapore.

 

Other Fiber Cables

SEA-ME-WE3

South East Asia - Middle East - Western Europe 3 Cable System

Sixteen international telecommunications administrations in the South East Asia, Middle East and Western Europe region signed a Memorandum of Understanding to implement a new subsea digital lightwave super-highway.  It will connect France, Italy, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Djibouti, United Arab Emirates, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.

The administrations participating in this project are: France Telecom, Telecom Italia, ARENTO of Egypt, MOPTT of Saudi Arabia, OPT of Djibouti, Etisalat of UAE, VSNL of India, SLT of Sri Lanka, CAT of Thailand, Telekom Malaysia, Singapore Telecom, AT&T of the USA, British Telecom, KDD of Japan and DBP-T of Germany.

The SEA-ME-WE3 will use direct optical repeaters over 60 to 100 kilometers.

The SEA-ME-WE3 will also adopt the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) multiplexing technology.

Each fiber pair will be capable of carrying up to 120,960 64 Kbps circuits.

The cable will support wideband services such as the HDTV and ATM. The transmission rates is expected to be 10 Gbps.

 

Cable

Comments

TCS-1

•  connects Florida, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and Columbia

Bermuda-Tortola II

•  bit rate: 420 Mbps per fiber

•  connects to PTAT•1 in Bermuda and to the Digital Eastern Caribbean Microwave System in Tortola

EMOS-1

•  connects Greece, Turkey, Israel, & MAT•2

•  may be the same as the 1100 km Turmeos 1 [Turkey Mediterranean  Optical System]

MAT-2

•  connects Sicily, Mallorca, and Spain

SEA-ME-WE-2

•  1994; cost: 670 M$US

•  wavelength: 1.55 mm

•  bit rate: 565 Mbps per fiber pair

•  total system capacity: 20,000 telephone circuits

•  connects South East Asia - Middle East - Western Europe

•  it is the first fiber cable to cross the Indian Ocean

G-P-T

•  1989; length: 3738 Km; cost: 177 M$US

•  wavelength: 1.30 mm

•  bit rate: 280 Mbps per fiber

•  3 fiber pairs

•  total system capacity: 37,800 telephone circuits

•  links Guam, Philippines and Taiwan

H-J-K

•  1990; length: 4571 Km; cost: 220 M$US

•  wavelength: 1.30 mm

•  bit rate: 280 Mbps per fiber

•  3 fiber pairs

•  total system capacity: 57,000 telephone circuits

•  links Hong Kong, Japan and Korea

TASMAN-2

•  1991; length: 2500 Km; cost: 100 M$US

•  wavelength: 1.55 mm

•  bit rate: 565 Mbps per fiber

•  3 fiber pairs

•  total system capacity: 57,000 telephone circuits

•  links Australia and New Zealand

 

NTT has laid a 950 km link between Kagoshima and Okinawa which is expected to become operational in May 1995. It’s total capacity is 10 Gbps, the equivalent of 774,144 telephone lines.[4]

Planned Cables

AC-1  [Planned In-Service: 1998] New York, U.S.A. -- Westerand, Germany -- White Sands, United Kingdom - 14,000 km at 4 x 10 Gb/s SDH Ring - WSTCS Ref#: Maintenance Authorities: Tyco SSI

PENCAN-6   [Planned In-Service: 1998] Conil, Spain -- El Medano, Tenerife -- Canary Islands - 1400 km at 2 x 2.5 Gb/s - WSTCS Ref#:  Maintenance Authorities: Telefonica

GANDALTA  [Planned In-Service: 1998] Candeleria, Tenerife -- Altavista, Gran Canaria - 110 km at 2.5 Gb/s – WSTCS Ref#: Maintenance Authorities: Telefonica

TRANSCAN-3  [Planned In-Service: 1999] Lanzarote - Grand Canary - 210 km at 3 x 622 Mb/s - WSTCS Ref#: Maintenance Authorities: Telefonica

SEA-ME-WE-3   South-East Asia - Middle East - Western Europe 3  [Planned: 1999] Segment S8: Sesimbra, Portugal -- Tetuan, Morocco -- Mazara, Italy -- Chania, Greece -- Marmaris, Turkey -- Yeroskipos, Cyprus -- Alexandria, Egypt - approx. ? km at 4 x 2.5 Gb/s (upgradable to 8 x 2.5 Gb/s) - WSTCS Ref#:  Maintenance Authorities: Marconi CPRM, ONPT Morocco, Telecom Italia, OTE, Turk Telecom, CYTA, Egypt Telecom Segment S9: Penmarc'h, France -- Sesimbra, Portugal - km at 4 x 2.5 Gb/s (upgradable to 8 x 2.5 Gb/s) - WSTCS Ref#:  Maintenance Authorities: FT, Marconi CPRM

ATLANTIS-2  [Planned] Green Argentina -- Brazil -- Senegal -- Cape Verde Islands -- Canary Islands -- Portugal - ______ km at 2 x 5Gb/s - WSTCS Ref#:  Maintenance Authorities:

COLUMBUS 3  [Under Construction: RFS 1999] Ojus, Florida USA -- Ponta Delgado, Azores, Portugal -- Lisbon, Portugal -- Conil, Spain -- Mazara Del Vallo, Sicily, Italy - WSTCS Ref#:  Maintenance Authorities:

MAYA-1  [Under Construction: RFS March 2000] Hollywood, Florida, USA -- Cancun, Mexico -- Puerto Cortes, Honduras -- Half-Moon Bay, Grand Cayman -- Puerto Limon, Costa Rica -- Maria Chiquita, Panama -- Tolu, Columbia - 4,323 KM at 8 x 2.5Gb/s SDH - WSTCS Ref#:  Maintenance Authorities:

TAT-14  [Under Construction: RFS October 2000] Manasquan, NJ USA -- Tuckerton, NJ USA -- Widemouth, UK -- St Valery en Caux, France -- Katwijk, Netherlands -- Norden, Germany -- Blaabjerg, Demark - 15,428 km at 16 x 10 gbit/s SDH. - WSTCS Ref#:  Maintenance Authorities:

Atlantica 1 - GlobeNet  [Planned: RFS 2000] Maintenance Authorities:   NY-Bermuda - Brazil - Venezuela - Florida  [In Service: RFS est. year-end 2000] Maintenance Authorities:

SAT-3 South Atlantic 3  [Planned: post 2000]  South Africa -- Europe - WSTCS Ref#:  Maintenance Authorities: Telkom SA

For further Research

 

http://www.teleport.com/~iscw/iscw/rmenu/rmenu.htm

http://www.diveweb.com/uw/

 



[1]     Networks, Communications International, December 1991

[2]     Contracts Awarded for TAT-11 System, TE&M, February 1, 1992

†     Private Trans-Atlantic Communications

[3]     North Pacific Cable Meets Asian Connectivity Needs, Telecommunications, February 1990

[4]     Lightwave, February 1995